The first conference was held in Berlin in 1995. The first meetings of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) took place in 2005 in conjunction with COP 11. The 2013 conference was held in Warsaw. Subsequently, COPs were held in Lima (Peru) in 2014 and in Paris in 2015. The 2015 event, COP 21, aimed to keep the average rise in global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius.  COP 22 was planned for Marrakech, Morocco and COP 23 for Bonn. The Berlin mandate was recognized in the Kyoto Protocol, as developing countries were not subject to emission reduction commitments during the first Kyoto commitment period.  However, the great potential for emissions growth in developing countries has strained negotiations on this issue.  In the final agreement, the Clean Development Mechanism was developed to limit emissions in developing countries, but so that developing countries do not bear the costs of reducing emissions.  The general assumption was that developing countries would be subject to quantitative obligations in subsequent commitment periods and that, at the same time, developed countries would meet their first-round obligations.  On 8 December 2012, at the end of the 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, an agreement was reached to extend the protocol until 2020 and set a date for 2015 for the development of a successor document from 2020 (see below for more information).  The outcome of the Doha negotiations received mixed reactions, with small island states critical of the package as a whole. The second Kyoto commitment period applies to about 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions per year.
Other conference outcomes are a timetable for a comprehensive agreement that is expected to be adopted by 2015 and will encompass all countries.  At the Doha meeting of the parties to the UNFCCC on 8 December 2012, the European Union`s chief climate negotiator, Artur Runge-Metzger, pledged to extend the binding treaty for the 27 European Member States until 2020 until 2020 until 2020. The protocol left unresolved several issues that could be resolved later by the sixth UNFCCC Cop6 conference, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague at the end of 2000, but it was unable to reach an agreement, given that the European Union (which advocates stricter implementation) and the United States , Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible) was unable to reach an agreement. When IPCC scientists confirmed the threat posed by man-made climate change caused by the burning of fossil fuels in industry and transport, governments began negotiations on the establishment of an international agreement on climate change in the early 1990s. This led to the adoption in 1992 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) to ensure that industrialized countries would remain in place by the year 2000 to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at 1990 levels. Developing countries have been exempted from emissions targets, while recognizing that most of the world`s historic and current greenhouse gas emissions originate in developed countries and that developing countries must achieve sustainable economic growth and eliminate poverty.